Red River Basin Flood Damage Reduction Work Group
Red River of the North Flood Control and Flood Damage Reduction
The Red River of the North is one of only a few major rivers in North America that flow north. This increases its spring flood potential, because snow in the southern headwaters of the basin often melts before snow in the northern areas, causing peak flows from downstream tributaries to coincide with the flood crest on the Red River. The northward flow of the river also results in more ice jam problems than most southward flowing rivers experience. In addition, the Red River is located within the broad, flat bottom of glacial Lake Agassiz, which has only a mild northward slope. As a result, the main stem and tributary rivers in the glacial lake plain area of the basin frequently overflow onto broad floodplains.
Flooding occurs when water from upstream enters an area at a rate exceeding the channel capacity to carry that water downstream. Flood damages occur when flood levels rise high enough, or remain long enough, to cause adverse impacts. Flood damages in the Red River Basin have included severe structural damage to private and public facilities and infrastructure, extensive crop loss, major environmental degradation, and loss of life.
Many floods have occurred in the Red River Basin in recorded history. The earliest accounts are found in journal entries of trappers and explorers beginning in 1824. Major floods have occurred on the main stem and tributaries both in the spring, due to snowmelt and rain, and in the summer, due to more localized heavy rains. Damages due to flooding have, on occasion, been catastrophic. Although flooding has been a natural occurrence in the basin since glacial Lake Agassiz receded, the potential for damage increased with settlement and subsequent industrial, urban, and agricultural development.
(For more information on the Red River of the North hydrology and flooding see TSAC Technical Papers 10 and 11.)
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Red River Basin Natural Resources
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Scope, Purpose and Jurisdiction
The Flood Damage Reduction Work Group (FDRWG or Work Group) was originally formed in 1998 to address issues related to the development of flood damage reduction projects in that portion of the Red River of the North Basin in Minnesota. (See next section.) While recognizing that the ultimate solutions to the flood damage and natural resource problems in the Red River Basin will take a concerted effort from people throughout the Basin, the Work Group was formed to address issues that are unique to Minnesota. However, the Work Group maintains extensive communications and coordination with jurisdictions and organizations throughout the Basin. For example, in 2005, two members of the Flood Damage Reduction Work Group also served as chairpersons for other Basin-wide organizations.
The Flood Damage Reduction Work Group is not a legally constituted body and has no regulatory or funding authority. It is an ad hoc group of individuals representing federal, state and local governments, and non-governmental organizations that meet voluntarily under a set of mutually agreed upon groundrules. The Work Group meets for the purpose of coordinating the implementation of the 1998 Mediation Agreement and making recommendations to other authorities and jurisdictions within the Red River Basin to that effect.
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1998 Mediation Agreement
The Red River Basin has experienced extensive drainage and flood control activities for most of the past 100 years. However, flooding and related soil erosion have continued to plague the region. During the 1990s there were frequent disagreements between watershed districts and resource management agencies over the most effective and least environmentally destructive methods to reduce flood damages. After the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) completed a joint environmental impact statement on cumulative effects of flood control projects in the Basin in 1996, the controversy reached its peak. Consequently, in May 1997, the Minnesota Legislature authorized funding for a “mediation” process to resolve the disputes regarding environmental effects of flood control and to break the gridlock blocking many new flood damage reduction projects.
Phase I Mediation Assessment
Mediation Agreement (December 8, 1998)
In December 1998, an agreement to reduce flood damage and improve natural resources in the Minnesota portion of the Red River Basin was reached by representatives of watershed districts, state and federal agencies, environmental organizations, and private landowner representatives. The agreement forged by this group, known as the Flood Damage Reduction Work Group, provided for a new collaborative approach to planning and implementing both flood damage reduction and natural resource enhancement projects. Key elements of the agreement are clearly identified goals for both flood reduction and natural resources; comprehensive watershed planning; early consultation and collaboration among all stakeholders; and a cooperative approach to permitting projects.
For full text of the 1998 Mediation Agreement (.pdf) click here.
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Work Group Membership
Members and Alternates
- Jerome Deal - Red River Watershed Management Board (co-chair)
- Mike Carroll - Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (co-chair)
- Dan Wilkens - Red River Watershed Management Board
- Ron Osowski - Red River Watershed Management Board
- Orville Knott - Red River Watershed Management Board
Alt. for all RRWMB representatives: John Finney
- Keith Mykleseth - The Nature Conservancy
- Henry VanOffelen - Minnesota Center for Environmental Advocacy
- Craig Evans - St. Paul District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
- John Jaschke - Minnesota Board of Water and Soil Resources
Alt.: Brian Dwight
- Jim Ziegler - Minnesota Pollution Control Agency
Alt: Molly Macgregor
- Jim Leach - U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Alt.: Laurie Fairchild
- Stephanie Miranowski – County Government Representative
- Vacant - Citizen and Landowner
- Gerald Van Amburg – Citizen
Alt.: Chuck Fritz- Director, International Water Institute
- Glen Kajewski – USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service
- Bruce Nelson – USDA Farm Services Agency
- Rob Sip -- MN Dept. of Agriculture
- Joel Rohde, Red Lake Nation
Alt: Al Pemberton
- Ed Snetsinger, White Earth Nation
- Terry McCollum, SWCD
Alt: Brian Borgen
Work Group Facilitator: Paul Wannarka-Red River Basin Coordinator
Naomi Erickson-Administrator, Red River Watershed Management Board
Mail to the Work Group:
Red River Basin Coordinator
2115 Birchmont Beach Rd NE
Bemidji, MN 56601
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The Work Group keeps meeting summaries, which list the actions taken and topics addressed at Work Group meetings. However, there are no formal minutes of discussions. To see the summary of a particular meeting click on one of the meeting dates in this list.
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TSAC-Technical and Scientific Advisory Committee
The Flood Damage Reduction Work Group relied on a Technical and Scientific Advisory Committee (TSAC) to provide technical and scientific information and analysis in support of the mediation effort. The TSAC represented a range of disciplines, including hydrology, engineering, ecology, soils science, and economics. The TSAC developed a series of working papers to address key topics associated with flood damage reduction and modeled the use of different strategies for flood damage reduction. The TSAC did its work based on consensus, and its work products reflect consensus recommendations to the Work Group.
The TSAC membership has included (* current active member):
- Jim Solstad*, Minnesota Dept. of Natural Resources
- Steve Apfelbaum, Applied Ecological Services, Inc.
- Doug Eppich, Applied Ecological Services, Inc.
- Scott Jutila*, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
- Luther Aadland*, Minnesota Dept. of Natural Resources
- Rick St. Germain, Houston Engineering (with support from Erik Jones)
- Brent Johnson*, Houston Engineering
- Charlie Anderson*, JOR Engineering
- Larry Lewis, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
- Doug Wells*, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
- Greg Larson, Board of Water and Soil Resources
- Al Kean*, Board of Water and Soil Resources
- Bruce Paakh*, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency
- Henry Van Offelen*, Minnesota Center for Environmental Advocacy
- Tom Groshens*, Minnesota Dept. of Natural Resources
TSAC Technical Papers
- Technical Paper No. 1: An Overview of the Impacts of Water Level Dynamics (“Bounce”) on Wetlands -- Apfelbaum, Steven and Lewis, Larry (December 8, 1998)
- Technical Paper No. 2: Small Wetlands Use for Stormwater Runoff Management in the Red River of the North Basin -- Eppich, Doug; Apfelbaum, Steven; Lewis, Larry (December 8, 1998)
- Technical Paper No. 3: The Effectiveness of Agricultural Best Management Practices for Runoff Management in the Red River Basin of Minnesota -- Larson, Greg (December 8, 1998)
- Technical Paper No. 4: Siting and Design of Impoundments for Flood Control in the Red River Basin -- Anderson, Charlie; Lewis, Larry (December 8, 1998)
- Technical Paper No. 5: Stream Restoration for Flood Damage Reduction in the Red River -- Aadland, Luther; Jutila, Scott; Anderson, Charlie (December 8, 1998)
- Technical Paper No. 6: Watershed Modeling of Various Flood Damage Reduction Strategies -- Solstad, Jim (December 8, 1998)
- Technical Paper No. 7: Flood Frequency Based Design -- Woodbury, Lawrence H.; St. Germain, Rick R. (December 8, 1998)
- Technical Paper No. 8: Implementation of a Flood Damage Reduction Strategy in the Red River Basin -- Technical and Scientific Advisory Group (December 8, 1998)
- Technical Paper No. 9: Red River Basin Flood Damage Reduction Project Monitoring Program -- Eppich,Doug; MacGregor, Molly; Kean, Al (April 2003)
- Technical Paper No. 10: Basin Strategy: Hydrologic Analysis -- Johnson, Brent (March 2003)
- Technical Paper No. 11: Red River Basin Flood Damage Reduction Framework -- Anderson, Charlie; Kean, Al (May 2004)
- Technical Paper No. 12: Wetland Hydrology & Biodiversity in the Red River Basin, Minnesota -- Apfelbaum, Steve; Eppich, Doug; Solstad, Jim (August 2004)
- Technical Paper No. 13: On-Channel Storage in the Red River Basin –Guidelines for Site Selection, Design, and Operation -- Van Offelen, Henry; Kean, Al (April 2005)
- Technical Paper No. 14: Draft | Task List
- Technical Paper No. 15: Culvert Sizing for Flood Damage Reduction.
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Project Team Support
The concept of a “Project Team” was created in the Red River Basin Flood Damage Reduction Work Group mediation agreement, December 9, 1998. The agreement outlines a project development process for reducing flood damage and improving natural resources in the Minnesota portion of the Red River Basin that involves early consultation and collaboration among all stakeholders and a cooperative approach to permitting projects.
Project Teams are responsible for working with a project from development of a project concept through to project construction and monitoring. A Project Team consists of appropriate stakeholders (watershed districts, state, federal and tribal agency personnel, local government officials, affected landowners and interested citizen group representatives), including at least one designated contact person from each agency. Members of the Project Team are appointed by the watershed board of managers.
Project proposers can use the Project Team process for projects that are large, complex, or have the potential to be controversial. But even small, relatively minor projects can be advanced through this process if the project proposer believes that the project could be expedited or would benefit from the group decision-making and regulatory coordination inherent in this process.
The FDR Work Group has developed a Project Team Handbook that contains all the information needed to manage the Project Team process. The Handbook is available for watershed district managers and administrators as well as the members of the Project Teams.
PROJECT TEAM HANDBOOK
- Section 1: Project Team Guidelines
- A. When Do We Need a Project Team?
- B. Project Team Overview
- C. Roles and Responsibilities
- D. Team Membership
- E. Making Decisions
- Section 2: Project Team Management
- A. Managing the Process
- B. Project Team Checklist
- C. Management Tools
- Section 3: Project Development
- A. Watershed Comprehensive Plan
- B. Project Implementation Process and Procedures Table
- Section 404 Concurrence Points Guidance
- Section 4: Project Funding
- A. Flood Damage Reduction Studies
- B. Flood Damage Reduction Grants
- C. FDRWG Project Compatibility and Readiness
- D. Project Acceleration Grants
- E. Project Team Support Funds
- Section 5: Special Topics
- A. Participatory Decision-Making
- B. Decision Models
- C. Understanding Communication
- D. Orientation of Team Members
- E. Leading from Where You Are
- Section 6: Appendix
- A. Red River Basin Flood Damage Reduction Work Group Agreement [revised} Watershed Management Plan Content (attachment to 6A)
- B. TSAC Technical papers
- C. User's Guide to Natural Resource Efforts
- Copyright Information
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Funding and Spending Plans
Each year the Flood Damage Reduction Work Group has the opportunity to direct the expenditure of an appropriation of state general funds through the Department of Natural Resources Water Resources account. The spending plan adopted by the Work Group that recommends how the Department of Natural Resources should allocate those funds.
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Last revised: December 6, 2009